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Description Conservation Exhibitions Provenance Credit
Description Extracts from Alfred Jacob Miller’s original text, which accompanied his images of Native Americans, shaped how Miller’s contemporaries viewed the watercolors, and often reveal the racism and sexism embedded in 19th-century exploration and colonization of the western part of what is today the United States. Red Elk, as In-ca-tash-a-pa's name was translated, was a distinguished Snake warrior. Miller has painted him with an ornamented bandeau set off by a rosette with feathers. Wampum beads encircle his neck, along with a kind of flat shell. While not as detailed in terms of costume and decoration as Catlin's and Bodmer's Indian portraits, Miller's are more romantic in their conception and presentation. Both Bodmer and Catlin strove for accuracy in detail, while Miller was interested in showing the Indians as the noble savages in the wilderness.
Date Description Narrative
8/19/1981Examinationexamined for condition
  • Alfred Jacob Miller: An Artist on the Oregon Trail. The Walters Art Gallery, Baltimore; Amon Carter Museum, Fort Worth; Buffalo Bill Historical Center, Cody. 1981-1982.
  • Alfred Jacob Miller and the Western Indians. The Walters Art Museum, Baltimore. 2006.
Provenance William T. Walters, Baltimore, 1858-1860, by commission; Henry Walters, Baltimore, 1894, by inheritance; Walters Art Museum, 1931, by bequest.
Credit Commissioned by William T. Walters, 1858-1860

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watercolor heightened with white on paper
(Painting & Drawing)
Accession Number
H: 11 5/8 x W: 9 1/16 in. (29.6 x 23 cm)
  • USA (Place of Origin)
Location Within Museum
Not On View


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