Parent Object
The Indian Certificate
Additional Views Explore Object
Creative Commons License

The Indian Certificate

Description Provenance Credit
Description Extracts from Alfred Jacob Miller’s original text, which accompanied his images of Native Americans, are included below for reference. These words, which shaped how Miller’s contemporaries viewed the watercolors, reveal the racism and sexism embedded in 19th-century exploration and colonization of the western part of what is today the United States. "The Sioux's recommendation (who wishes to officiate as a guide) is here being read by our Captain. The Indians in their intercourse with the whites have had sagacity to discover the value of certificates of good character, and procure such testimonials from those whom they have served in order to recommend themselves to others; preserving these papers with great care. It sometimes happens that the writer (knowing that the poor savage cannot read) gives him a character not at all favorable, in short, tells too much." A.J. Miller, extracted from "The West of Alfred Jacob Miller" (1837). In July 1858 William T. Walters commissioned 200 watercolors at twelve dollars apiece from Baltimore born artist Alfred Jacob Miller. These paintings were each accompanied by a descriptive text, and were delivered in installments over the next twenty-one months and ultimately were bound in three albums. Transcriptions of field-sketches drawn during the 1837 expedition that Miller had undertaken to the annual fur-trader's rendezvous in the Green River Valley (in what is now western Wyoming), these watercolors are a unique record of the closing years of the western fur trade.
Provenance William T. Walters, Baltimore, 1858-1860, by commission; Henry Walters, Baltimore, 1894, by inheritance; Walters Art Museum, 1931, by bequest.
Credit Commissioned by William T. Walters, 1858-1860

Download Image Add to Collection Creative Commons License

watercolor on paper
(Painting & Drawing)
Accession Number
H: 9 1/4 x W: 12 1/8 in. (23.5 x 30.8 cm)
  • USA (Place of Origin)
Location Within Museum
Not On View


    Thumbnail: The Indian Certificate Thumbnail: The Indian Certificate Thumbnail: The Indian Certificate
    Zoom Out Zoom In Back to Details  
    Full Size: The Indian Certificate