Description Warfare was a common means of territorial defense and expansion, the victors gaining land and resources and especially tribute in the form of goods (foodstuff s and crafted items) and human labor. The public display of bound captives proclaimed a community's hegemony and the prowess of the local chief, their communal dominance being preserved in the form of stone sculptures exhibited in plazas and around administrative/ceremonial buildings. The largest such sculptures are those of warriors, typically portrayed with raised weapon and carrying a trophy head. Smaller sculptures depict the vanquished such as this defeated warrior with bound arms above his head and ankles similarly secured. His midsection sports a belt-like wrapping adorned with shell or metal beads. The figure's pierced earlobes may have been garnished with ornaments, likely made of shell or metal.
- Exploring Art of the Ancient Americas: The John Bourne Collection Gift. The Walters Art Museum, Baltimore; Frist Center for the Visual Arts, Nashville. 2012-2013.
Provenance Private collection, New York; Ron Messick Fine Arts, Santa Fe, New Mexico; purchased by John G. Bourne, Sante Fe, 2001; given to John G. Bourne Foundation, 2001 ; given to Walters Art Museum, 2013.  according to Bourne Foundation accounts
Credit Gift of John G. Bourne Foundation, 2013
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